Name:

"Unlimited tolerance must lead to the disappearance of tolerance. If we extend unlimited tolerance even to those who are intolerant, if we are not prepared to defend a tolerant society against the onslaught of the intolerant, then the tolerant will be destroyed, and tolerance with them. In this formulation, I do not imply, for instance, that we should always suppress the utterance of intolerant philosophies; as long as we can counter them by rational argument and keep them in check by public opinion, suppression would certainly be unwise. But we should claim the right to suppress them if necessary even by force; for it may easily turn out that they are not prepared to meet us on the level of rational argument, but begin by denouncing all argument; they may forbid their followers to listen to rational argument, because it is deceptive, and teach them to answer arguments by the use of their fists or pistols. We should therefore claim, in the name of tolerance, the right not to tolerate the intolerant." -- Karl Popper, The Open Society and Its Enemies, Vol. I, Chapt. 7, n.4, at 265.

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Sunday, September 28, 2008

Mariwan Halabjaee, the Salman Rushdie of Iraqi Kurdistan, Threatened by Mullah Krekar



As reported in Aftenposten and Dagbladet, in September 2008 Mullah Krekar threatened to kill Mariwan Halabjaee in an audio file published on the Kurdish website Renesans.nu. Mullah Krekar was the original leader of the Islamist terrorist group Ansar al-Islam in Iraq.

Mr. Halabjaee is the author of the book Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam. The allegedly "blasphemous" book is about how Islam is allegedly used to oppress women. Mullah Krekar compared Mr. Halabjaee with, among others, Salman Rushdie and Ayaan Hirsi Ali.

Mr. Halabjaee was forced to flee to Norway from Iraqi Kurdistan because the Islamic League of Kurdistan issued a fatwa to kill him. In August 2006, Mr. Halabjaee was granted political asylum in Norway. In December 2007, Mr. Halabjaee was convicted in absentia in Iraqi Kurdistan for the crime of blasphemy.

Ironically, Mullah Krekar, like Mr. Halabjaee, currently resides in Norway as a refugee. Since February 2003 Mullah Krekar has had an expulsion order against him in Norway. The order has been suspended, however, pending Iraqi government guarantees that Mullah Krekar will not face torture or execution.

* Mariwan Halabjaee (sp. Marywan / Halabjay, Halabjayee, Halabjaye, Halabjayi)

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Monday, September 01, 2008

I'm American - Stuck Mojo (Sex, Sharia remix)

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Sunday, March 23, 2008

Mariwan Halabjaee - Voice of America editorial (with book)

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Thursday, March 20, 2008

Interview of Mariwan Halabjaee - French subtitles

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Wednesday, March 19, 2008

Voice of America editorial on Mariwan Halabjaee

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Friday, February 08, 2008

Mariwan Halabjaee, the Salman Rushdie of Iraqi Kurdistan, explains Qur'an Sura 4:34



Mariwan Halabjaee,* "the Salman Rushdie of Iraqi Kurdistan," is the author of the book "Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam." Mr. Halabjaee was forced to flee to Norway from Iraqi Kurdistan because the Islamic League of Kurdistan issued a fatwa to kill him. In August 2006, Mr. Halabjaee was granted political asylum in Norway. In December 2007, Mr. Halabjaee was convicted in absentia in Iraqi Kurdistan for the crime of blasphemy.

The University of Southern California Muslim Student Association Islamic Server provides three translations of chapter 4, verse 34 of the Qur'an as follows:

"004.034

YUSUFALI: Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has given the one more (strength) than the other, and because they support them from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in (the husband's) absence what Allah would have them guard. As to those women on whose part ye fear disloyalty and ill-conduct, admonish them (first), (Next), refuse to share their beds, (And last) beat them (lightly); but if they return to obedience, seek not against them Means (of annoyance): For Allah is Most High, great (above you all).

PICKTHAL: Men are in charge of women, because Allah hath made the one of them to excel the other, and because they spend of their property (for the support of women). So good women are the obedient, guarding in secret that which Allah hath guarded. As for those from whom ye fear rebellion, admonish them and banish them to beds apart, and scourge them. Then if they obey you, seek not a way against them. Lo! Allah is ever High, Exalted, Great.

SHAKIR: Men are the maintainers of women because Allah has made some of them to excel others and because they spend out of their property; the good women are therefore obedient, guarding the unseen as Allah has guarded; and (as to) those on whose part you fear desertion, admonish them, and leave them alone in the sleeping-places and beat them; then if they obey you, do not seek a way against them; surely Allah is High, Great."

Source:
University of Southern California Muslim Student Association Islamic Server

Other translators render the key word here, وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ, waidriboohunna:

Pickthall: "and scourge them"
Yusuf Ali: "(And last) beat them (lightly)"
Al-Hilali/Khan: "(and last) beat them (lightly, if it is useful)"
Shakir: "and beat them"
Sher Ali: "and chastise them"
Khalifa: "then you may (as a last alternative) beat them"
Arberry: "and beat them"
Rodwell: "and scourge them"
Sale: "and chastise them"
Asad: "then beat them"

Source:
Hot Air: Blogging the Qur’an

* Mariwan Halabjaee (sp. Marywan / Halabjay, Halabjayee, Halabjaye, Halabjayi)

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Friday, February 01, 2008

Interview with Mariwan Halabjaee, the Salman Rushdie of Iraqi Kurdistan

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Tuesday, January 08, 2008

"The Salman Rushdie of Iraqi Kurdistan" convicted of blasphemy.

Photo of Mariwan (sp. Marywan) Halabjaee (sp. Halabjay, Halabjayee, Halabjaye, Halabjayi)As reported by United Press International, Mariwan Halabjaee,* "the Salman Rushdie of Iraqi Kurdistan," was was sentenced in absentia in Iraqi Kurdistan to prison for blasphemy. A court in Halabja sentenced Halabjaee to six months behind bars.

The allegedly "blasphemous" book, Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam, is about how Islam is allegedly used to oppress women. "I wanted to prove how oppressed women are in Islam and that they have no rights," said Halabjaee. "My book is based on Islamic sources such as the Holly Qur'an, Muslim and Bukhari books and many more."

Halabjaee was forced to obtain political asylum in Norway after the Islamic League of Kurdistan issued a "conditional" fatwa to kill him if he did not repent and apologize for writing his book. The "conditional" nature of the fatal fatwa was uncertain. Halabjaee reported that "the mullahs and scholars said if I go to them and apologize they will give me 80 lashes and then refer me to the fatwa committee to decide if I am to be beheaded. They might forgive me, they might not."

Book cover for Sex, Legislation and Women in the History of Islam, by Mariwan (sp. Marywan) Halabjaee (sp. Halabjayee, Halabjaye, Halabjayi)
Halabjaee received telephone calls saying, "Now, in 10 years or 15 years, we will kill you." Another time, Halabjaee reported, "the Islamists said once from the radio, if they found out where I was, they would blow themselves up with me." The worse thing was realizing that his wife and children were in danger. "With that book I wanted to defend women but the first thing I did was hurt my wife." As a result, Halabjaye went into hiding with his pregnant wife and three children.

A dedicated website, Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam, was created to facilitate Internet distribution of the book. The book can be downloaded in Adobe Acrobat PDF format, compressed zip format, compressed rar format, and as jpeg graphic files for each individual page.

The Kurdistani - Photo of book cover - Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam, by Mariwan HalabjayeeThe website Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam was founded on the belief that the best way to respond to those who try to suppress publication of an academic book is to increase publication, promotion and distribution of that book. The most efficient way to do that was on the Internet. It was also based on the belief that the only thing that should be accomplished by those who seek to suppress publication of the book Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam was to cause it to be published to the entire world.

* Mariwan Halabjaee (sp. Marywan / Halabjay, Halabjayee, Halabjaye, Halabjayi)

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Monday, September 03, 2007

New music video dedicated to "the Salman Rushdie of Iraqi-Kurdistan"



The second music video to include the entire contents of a suppressed book.

Remix version of the music video for the song "Only Women Bleed" by Alice Cooper, dedicated to Mariwan Halabjaee,* "the Salman Rushdie of Iraqi-Kurdistan." Mr. Halabjaee is the author of the book Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam. He was forced to flee Iraqi-Kurdistan and obtain political asylum in Norway because the Islamic League of Kurdistan issued a fatwa to kill him, and the Kurdistan Regional Government refused to offer him protection or to arrest those who threatened his life.

"Only Women Bleed" lyrics:

"Man's got his woman to take his seed
He's got the power - oh
She's got the need
She spends her life through pleasing up her man
She feeds him dinner or anything she can

She cries alone at night too often
He smokes and drinks and don't come home at all
Only women bleed
Only women bleed
Only women bleed

Man makes your hair gray
He's your life's mistake
All you're really lookin' for is an even break

He lies right at you
You know you hate this game
He slaps you once in a while and you live and love in pain

She cries alone at night too often
He smokes and drinks and don't come home at all
Only women bleed
Only women bleed
Only women bleed
Only women bleed
Only women bleed
Only women bleed
Only women bleed

Black eyes all of the time
Don't spend a dime
Clean up this grime
And you there down on your knees begging me please come
Watch me bleed

Only women bleed
Only women bleed
Only women bleed
Only women bleed
Only women bleed
Only women bleed
Only women bleed"

For more information regarding Mr. Halabjaee and his book, see:
Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam

* Mariwan Halabjaee (sp. Marywan / Halabjay, Halabjayee, Halabjaye, Halabjayi)

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Thursday, August 02, 2007

Open Season - Stuck Mojo (Sex, Sharia remix )



The first music video to include the entire contents of a suppressed book.

Remix and extended version of the music video for the Stuck Mojo song "Open Season," dedicated to Mariwan Halabjaee,* "the Salman Rushdie of Iraqi-Kurdistan." Mr. Halabjaee is the author of the book Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam. Mr. Halabjaee was forced to flee Iraqi-Kurdistan and obtain political asylum in Norway because the Islamic League of Kurdistan issued a fatwa to kill him, and the Kurdistan Regional Government refused to offer him protection or to arrest those who threatened his life.

For more information regarding Mr. Halabjaee and his book, see:
Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam

The song "Open Season" is on the latest Stuck Mojo album, "Southern Born Killers."

"Open Season" lyrics:
"I speak peace when peace is spoken, But I speak war when your hate is provoking, The season is open 24-7-365, Man up yo time to ride, No need to hide behind slogans of deceit, Claiming that you're a religion of peace, We just don't believe you, We can clearly see through, The madness that you're feeding your people, Jihad the cry of your unholy war, Using the willing, the weak and poor, From birth drowning in propaganda, rhetoric and slander, All we can say is damn ya

My forefathers fought and died for this here
I'm stronger than your war of fear
Are we clear?
If you step in my hood
It's understood
It's open season

I don't need a faith that's blind, Where death and hate bring me peace of mind, With views that are stuck deep in the seventh century, So much sand in your eyes to blind to see, The venom that you leaders preach, Is the path to your own destruction, Your own demise, You might say that I don't understand but your disgust for me is what I realize, Surprise!
Your homicidal ways has got the whole world watching, Whole world scoping, So if you bring it to my home base, Best believe it, The season's open

I see you, Hell yeah I see you, Motherfucker naw, I don't wanna be you, If you come to my place, I'll drop more than just some bass, Yo you'll get a taste of a, Sick motherfucker from the Dirty, I ain't worrying not a fucking bit, I'm telescoping like Hubble, Yo you in trouble, Yo on the double, I'm wild with mine, Bring that style with mine, Fuck with my family I'll end your life, Just the way it is, Just the way it be, Do you understand? No matter if you're woman or man, or child, My profile is crazy, That shit you do doesn't amaze me, I'm ready to blaze thee

I don't give a damn what god you claim, I've seen the innocent that you've slain, On my streets you're just fair game, Like a pig walk to your slaughter, The heat here is so much hotter, And my views won't teeter totter or fluctuate, Step to me you just met your fate, And I'll annihilate, With the skill of a Shogun assassin, Slicing and dicing precise with a passion, In any shape form or fashion, Bring it to my home, Welcome to the danger zone, Cause your attitude's the reason, The triggers keep squeezing, The hunt is on and it's open season

It's Open Season"
These lyrics say the same thing as philosopher Karl Popper did in his book The Open Society and Its Enemies:
"Unlimited tolerance must lead to the disappearance of tolerance. If we extend unlimited tolerance even to those who are intolerant, if we are not prepared to defend a tolerant society against the onslaught of the intolerant, then the tolerant will be destroyed, and tolerance with them. In this formulation, I do not imply, for instance, that we should always suppress the utterance of intolerant philosophies; as long as we can counter them by rational argument and keep them in check by public opinion, suppression would certainly be unwise. But we should claim the right to suppress them if necessary even by force; for it may easily turn out that they are not prepared to meet us on the level of rational argument, but begin by denouncing all argument; they may forbid their followers to listen to rational argument, because it is deceptive, and teach them to answer arguments by the use of their fists or pistols. We should therefore claim, in the name of tolerance, the right not to tolerate the intolerant."
-- Karl Popper, The Open Society and Its Enemies, Vol. I, Chapt. 7, n.4, at 265.

Stuck Mojo websites:
http://stuckmojo.us/
http://www.StuckMojoMedia.com
http://www.myspace.com/stuckinthemojo
http://www.stuckmojo.de/
http://www.dukerocks.com/phpBB2/viewforum.php?f=2
http://www.stuckmojo.net/

* Mariwan Halabjaee (sp. Marywan / Halabjay, Halabjayee, Halabjaye, Halabjayi)

Sunday, February 18, 2007

Iraqi Kurdistan: Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam Available in English Soon

The Kurdistani - Photo of book cover - Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam, by Mariwan HalabjayeeAs first reported by Kurdish Media, the book Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam by Mariwan (sp. Marywan) Halabjaee (sp. Halabjay, Halabjayee, Halabjaye, Halabjayi), "the Salman Rushdie of Iraqi Kurdistan," will be translated and published in English within the next few months.

The book is about how Islam is allegedly used to oppress women. "I wanted to prove how oppressed women are in Islam and that they have no rights," said Halabjaee. "My book is based on Islamic sources such as the Holly Qur'an, Muslim and Bukhari books and many more."

As previously reported, Halabjaee was forced to flee to Sweden after the Islamic League of Kurdistan issued a "conditional" fatwa to kill him if he did not repent and apologize for writing his book. The "conditional" nature of the fatal fatwa was uncertain. Halabjaee reported that "a couple of weeks ago in Halabja, the mullahs and scholars said if I go to them and apologize they will give me 80 lashes and then refer me to the fatwa committee to decide if I am to be beheaded. They might forgive me, they might not."

Book cover for Sex, Legislation and Women in the History of Islam, by Mariwan (sp. Marywan) Halabjaee (sp. Halabjayee, Halabjaye, Halabjayi)

Halabjaee received telephone calls saying, "Now, in 10 years or 15 years, we will kill you." Another time, Halabjaee reported, "the Islamists said once from the radio, if they found out where I was, they would blow themselves up with me." The worse thing was realizing that his wife and children were in danger. "With that book I wanted to defend women but the first thing I did was hurt my wife." As a result, Halabjaye went into hiding with his pregnant wife and three children.

Halabjaee was forced to flee Iraqi-Kurdistan after the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) refused to offer him any protection or to arrest those who threatened his life. "The Kurdish authorities have not provided any protection from threats and fatwas," said Halabjaee, "any moment I am expecting a bullet or a hand grenade to be thrown into where I live."

Photo of Mariwan (sp. Marywan) Halabjaee (sp. Halabjay, Halabjayee, Halabjaye, Halabjayi)In response to the Halabjaee affair, the KRG Minister of Religious Issues, Dr. Mohammad Gaznayi, told protestors that according to the law of Iraqi-Kurdistan, "defamation" or "criticizing" religion or religious figures is a crime and its punishment is severe. "We will give those who attack our prophets a sentence so that they can be a lesson for everyone," said Gaznayi. Halabjaee was in possession of a warrant for his arrest issued by the Suleimaniya police department when he fled Iraqi-Kurdistan.

A dedicated website, Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam, was created to facilitate Internet distribution of the book. The book can be downloaded in Adobe Acrobat PDF format, compressed zip format, compressed rar format (the format originally provided by The Kurdistani), and as jpeg graphic files for each individual page.

The website Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam was founded on the belief that the best way to respond to those who try to suppress publication of an academic book is to increase publication, promotion and distribution of that book. The most efficient way to do that was on the Internet. It was also based on the belief that the only thing that should be accomplished by those who seek to suppress publication of the book Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam was to cause it to be published to the entire world.

The book was originally made available online by BoPeshawa.com, along with information about efforts to aid Halabjaee. In addition, BoPeshawa.com provides contact information for the representative of Halabjaee’s campaign in the United Kingdom, Shapol Said [shapoldarya@yahoo.co.uk].

Saturday, September 23, 2006

The Other Iraqi Kurdistan Flag Issues

Kurdistan and Iraqi Flags regarding The Other Iraqi Kurdistan Flag IssuesMuch has been written about the national, state, and separatist implications of the recent decision by the Kurdistan Regional Government ("KRG") not to fly the flag of Iraq, but instead to fly only the flag of the KRG. However, the religious and cultural implications, and more specifically, the implications concerning the relationship between religion and the State, may be more profound.

The current flag of Iraq contains the words "Allah Akbar" (which is translated as "God is Great," "God is Greater," or "God is Greatest") in Kufic script in the center of the flag. The religious implications, and the implications regarding the relationship between religion and the State, are obvious. Less obvious, but no less significant, is the national and transnational significance.

The transnational connection is clearly to Iran. While the words "Allah Akbar" are in the center of the Iraqi flag, they are repeated along the borders of the central white stripe on the flag of Iran. Only the flags of Iraq and Iran contain this particular public proclamation of the greatness of, and implied submission of the State to, the Islamic God. Two States under God. Two States submitting to the same, Islamic God. And perhaps to those who interpret His word.

The use of Kufic script has obvious national and religious significance. The name "Kufic" is derived from the city of Kufa in Iraq. The city of Kufa, about 170 kilometers south of Baghdad, and 10 kilometers northeast of Najaf, is one of four Iraqi cities that are of great importance to Shiite Muslims. Indeed, Kufa continues to be an important pilgrimage site for Shiites. The use of this script on the Iraqi flag reinforces not only a uniquely Iraqi (as opposed to Kurdish) identity of those who fly it, but also one intentionally associated with a Shiite city and the predominant Shiite sect.

The religious significance of refusing to fly a flag containing the words "Allah Akbar" is both obvious and profound. No longer will the proclamation that the Islamic "God is Greatest" fly over Kurdistan. No longer will the State lie, both literally and figuratively, beneath a declaration of Islamic supremacy.

Moreover, the cultural and religious significance of replacing a flag declaring "Allah Akbar" with the flag of the Kuridstan Regional Government, while far less obvious, is equally important. The flag of the Kurdistan Regional Government contains at its center a uniquely Kurdish religious symbol - the 21 ray sun disk. The sun emblem has a long religious and cultural history among the Kurds, stretching into antiquity. The number 21 holds a primary importance in the native Yazdani religious tradition of the Kurds.

The Yazidis, who are indigenous to Kurdistan and known for their religious tolerance, have historically been persecuted by both Shiite and Sunni Muslims. Certainly only Iraqi Kurdistan would place the religious symbol of the Yazidi in the center of its flag, much less use that flag to replace one that proclaims "Allah Akbar."

As a result, the decision not to fly the flag of Iraq, but instead to fly only the flag of the Kurdistan Regional Government is much more than a statement of national independence. It is a statement of cultural autonomy and rejuvenation. A statement of religious tolerance and pluralism. It is, more than anything, an affirmation that Kurdistan is, and shall remain, different.

Tuesday, April 11, 2006

Response to Karmalised concerning Dr. Kamal Qadir and this Weblog

In an article entitled "Why is Dr. Kamal Sayyid Qadir still in jail?," Diane Warth at the weblog Karmalised said:
Don't count on certain Kurdish bloggers to call for an investigation. They're too absorbed with supporting the freedom to criticise Muslims in the most offensive ways possible to be worried about the fate of Kurdish academics who refuse to tow the implicit line imposed by the ruling families of their great new democracy.
If you click on the link for "Don't count on certain Kurdish bloggers," it is "deja vu all over again." The link leads you to The Is-Ought Problem weblog. This weblog. I am that "certain blogger."

The charge that I have failed to criticize the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) for its treatment of Dr. Kamal Sayyid Qadir is demonstrably false. Anyone who bothered to read this weblog before making such an allegation would know that. I have repeatedly criticized the KRG for its treatment of Dr. Qadir. As a result, Ms. Warth's allegation is not only false, but slanderous.

I most recently criticized the KRG for its treatment of Dr. Qadir and Hawez Hawezi, a reporter for the weekly newspaper Hawlati, in an article published on March 27, 2006 entitled, "An open letter to the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) from a friend in the U.S." With regard to Mr. Hawezi, I said:
On March 18, 2006, Kurdish Media reported that a political party, the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), arrested Hawlati correspondent Hawez Hawezi because he wrote an article critical of Kurdistan’s administration. In addition to the obvious trampling of freedom of speech, what is a political party doing arresting anyone?
With regard to Dr. Dr. Kamal Qadir (aka Kamal Karim), I said:
On March 26 and 27, 2006, Reuters and The New York Times reported that Dr. Kamal Qadir (aka Kamal Karim) was sentenced to one and one half years in prison for "defaming" the president of the Kurdistan Regional Government, Masoud Barzani, in articles on a Kurdish website that accused Barzani and his Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) of corruption and abuse of power. Most Americans will not be impressed by Judge Faridoun Abdullah's explanation that:
"We helped him. We took into consideration that he is an academic and has served in the education field. So we sentenced him to a year and a half. Otherwise we would have sentenced him to five years."
Americans will also not be reassured by the fact that Dr. Qadir was originally sentenced to thirty years in prison.
Long predating Ms. Warth's article, I criticized the KRG for its treatment of Dr. Qadir in a December 19, 2005 article entitled, "Kurdistan Regional Government Endangering Freedom of Speech For Kurds in Turkey?" The entire article is devoted to Dr. Qadir's case. The article concludes:
How can the Iraqi Kurdistan credibly argue that Kurds in Turkey have a right to freedom of speech when its own citizens do not have that right? How can the KRG expect Turkey to afford its Kurdish residents greater rights than the KRG gives to its own citizens? If a Kurd in Turkey is prosecuted, like Mr. Pamuk, for "denigrating Turkishness" for stating that 30,000 people have died in Turkey's Kurdish conflict, how can the KRG complain?

One can only hope that Dr. Qadir's conviction is overturned on appeal. Not only for the freedom, safety and security of the citizens of Iraqi Kurdistan, but also for the freedom, safety and security of Kurds in Turkey, and elsewhere.
Still earlier, on December 17, 2005, I criticized the KRG for its arrest of Dr. Qadir in an article entitled, "Will Iraqi Kurdistan Teach Turkey About Freedom of Speech?." Again, the entire article is about Dr. Qadir.

As for criticizing the "ruling families" of Iraqi Kurdistan, as well as supporting Dr. Qadir, in my "Open letter to the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) from a friend in the U.S.," I specifically noted:
The Spring 2006 edition of The Middle East Quarterly had an article by Michael Rubin entitled, "Dissident Watch: Kamal Sayid Qadir." The article reported that, "the Barzani family has accumulated up to US$2 billion since Masoud Barzani returned to the region from exile in 1991. After Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty reported on Iraqi Kurdish corruption, its reporter received death threats." The article went on to note that, "foreigners visiting Erbil prisons privately report individuals incarcerated after failing to pay kickbacks to or accept ghost partnerships with Barzani family members." The article concluded:
"Qadir's imprisonment came a day after President George W. Bush received Barzani in the White House, calling the Kurdish leader, 'a man of courage … a man who has stood up to a tyrant.' Such words might be better applied to Qadir."

In addition, each of these articles was republished by Kurdish Media:
An open letter to the Kurdistan Regional Government from a friend in the US
Kurdistan Regional Government endangering freedom of speech for Kurds in North Kurdistan?
Will Iraqi Kurdistan teach Turkey about freedom of speech?

As for my "supporting the freedom to criticise Muslims," I will first note that my article "Kurdistan Regional Government Endangering Freedom of Speech For Kurds in Turkey?" quotes, and indeed expressly relies upon, the Muslim principle of reciprocity set forth in Number 13 of "Al-Nawawi's Forty Hadiths" in Hadith in al-Bukhari, as well as Mishkat-el-Masabih.

Most importantly, supporting someone's fundamental and inalienable right to criticize a religion, any religion, is not the same as an intent or desire to criticize that religion or its adherents. "I may disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it."

This weblog has consistently supported freedom of speech in Iraqi Kurdistan. Both freedom of speech to criticize the government, and freedom of speech to criticize purported religious "authorities" who issue fatal fatwas against authors of books.

Finally, I am posting this here, as opposed to first contacting Ms. Warth directly, only because comments on the Karmalised weblog are disabled, and I cannot find an e-mail address for Ms. Warth. Then again, Ms. Warth didn't bother to contact me before, or even after, she leveled her charges against me.

Sunday, April 09, 2006

How Islam is Presented and Explored in "The Prophet’s Hair"

By Jamal Muhsin
April 8, 2006
jmuhsin [at] yahoo [dot] com

‘The Prophet’s Hair’, a short story by Salman Rushdie, called ‘a moral fable’ reveals much about Islam. The story was written in 1981 in which it was not controversial. In a different era ? namely after Rushdie’s The Satanic Verses, when the fatwa was issued against him and recently when Muhammad’s cartoons have caused chaos and the world faces threats of Islam? it can be provoking. In this essay, I will be dealing with Islam and how it is pictured in the story. I think to get a good picture of it, one needs to look at Qur’an and compare some verses to the fictional manifestations in this story. Thus, I will be mentioning some verses from Qur’an that, I think, cohere with the fiction and the life of Hashim’s family and the main idea in the story. It is worth mentioning too that the incident of the stolen relic is a suggestion of the actual one in which the relic in Hazratbal mosque was stolen in the early 60’s of the twentieth century. Hazratbal is the most important and ‘holy’ mosque in Kashmir because, as it is said, it enshrines a strand of Prophet Muhammad’s beard? Mo-i-Muqaddas, which means ‘the holy hair’ in Persian language. This strand which is considered sacred and supposed to be worshiped is broadly satirised in ‘The Prophet's Hair’. The relic has wreaked havoc in the splendid charming valley of Kashmir.

At the very beginning of the story one is puzzled why young Atta is in ‘prone form’[1] and beautiful Huma’s face is ‘bruised’, and she and her mother had not ‘slept a wink from worrying’(2843). One wonders why Huma is ‘lying motionless amidst the funereally stunted winter blooms of the hopeful florist’ and Atta is ‘suffering terribly from exposure as well as a broken skull, entered a coma’ (2843). Being beaten and humiliated as we will see in the other episodes of the story, can be interpreted as the state of the members of many families in which Islam is dominant. It is not important whether Hashim was a Muslim believer (a moderate one) before finding the relic or not; what he does later is derived from Islam. So, being a moderate or so-called ‘fanatic’ or ‘fundamentalist’ alters neither the essence of Islam, or the verses of Qur’an, nor the misery that the ‘holy hair’ brings to Hashim’s family.

After Hashim finds the relic, he begins to behave like a typical Muslim and apply Islam Shari’a. Although Hashim does not take the vial for the sake of the relic, he is magically and miraculously affected by it. He speaks with himself:
the Prophet would have disapproved mightily of this relic-worship. He abhorred the idea of being deified! So, by keeping this hair from its distracted devotees, I perform? do I not? ? a finer service that I would by returning it! Naturally, I don’t want it for its religious value… I’m a man of world, of this world. I see it purely as a secular object of great rarity and blinding beauty. In short, it’s the silver vial I desire, more than the hair. (2846)
He says that he does not take care about its religious value and only sees it as a ‘secular object’ but ‘the holy hair’, just like Moses’ rod, made him ‘looked swollen, distended. His eyes bulged […], they were red-rimmed, and his knuckles were white’. (2847) Furthermore, ‘He seemed to be on the point of bursting! […], under the influence of the misappropriated relic, he had filled up with spectral fluid which might at any moment ooze uncontrollably from his every bodily opening’. (2847)

As soon as this change happens, he acts like a Muslim father and husband. Now, the necessity of quoting some verses from Qur’an seems to be inevitable here. Hashim tells his wife that ‘far from being the principal beneficiary of his will, she would receive no more than the eighth portion which was her due under Islamic law.’ (2847) This is an application of Qur’an: ‘[…] And they shall have a fourth of that which you leave, if you have no child; but if you have a child, then they shall have an eighth of that which you leave […]’[2] He accuses Huma of ‘lasciviousness, because she went around the city barefaced, which was unseemly for any good Muslim girl to do. She should, he commanded, enter purdah forthwith.’ (2847) This is apparently a mirror of Qur’an: ‘And stay in your houses with dignity, and do not show off yourselves like the showing off the former days of ignorance […]’ (Al-Ahzab 33, 34, 414) or: ‘And say to the believing women that they restrain their eyes and guard their private parts, and that they disclose not their natural and artificial beauty except that which is apparent thereof, and that they draw their head-coverings over their bosoms […]’. (Al-Nur, 24, 32, 341). Another verse can be linked to this issue is: ‘O children of Adam! We have indeed sent down to you raiment to cover your shame, and to be an elegant dress; but the raiment of righteousness? that is the best. That is one of the Signs of Allah, that they may remember.’ (Al-A’raf, 7, 27, 142). Hashim is not only suggesting an Islamic dress or making her follow the Islamic disciplines but also imposing that on her, as we see later when he issues an ultimatum to expel her from the house because she resists. Hashim becomes a regular prayer and ‘[…] forced his family to rise, wash and say their prayers. From then on, he began to pray five times daily for the first time in his life, and his wife and children were obliged to do likewise.’ (2847-48) Burning all the other books except the Qur’an, he orders ‘each member of the family to read passages from this book for at least two hours per day’ (2848) because according to Qur’an, ‘This messenger of Ours believes in that which has been revealed to him from his Lord, and so do the believers: all of them believe in Allah, and His angels, and His Books […]. (Al-Baqarah, 2, 286, 46) Muhammad’s strand of beard has made Hashim a ‘good’ and ‘honest’ believer and, therefore, his family members, having no other way or choice, should follow the same belief.

But we see ‘worse to come’ as the narrator says. Although Hashim is doing something that contradicts Islam (usury), he makes use of Islamic means of punishments against one of the poor debtors who asks for giving him much time. Calling the debtor as a thief of others’ money, Hashim ‘tried to cut off the wretch’s right hand’ (2848). Here, he is like a ruler in Islam ordered to do his job: ‘And as for the man who steals and the woman who steals, cut off their hands in retribution of their offence as an exemplary punishment from Allah […].’ (Al-Ma’idah, 5, 39, 105). This is used ironically by Rushdie to affirm that the ‘discipline around’ the house is none but from Shari’a. There will surely be some ‘disciplines’:
Men are the Guardians over women because Allah has made some of them excel others, and because they (men) spend of their wealth. So virtuous women are those who are obedient, and guard the secrets of their husbands with Allah’s protection. And as for those on whose part you fear disobedience, admonish them and leave them alone in their beds, and chastise them. Then if they obey you, seek not a way against them […]. (Al-Nisa, 4, 35, 78)
As we see, when the mother wants to ‘calm Hashim down, he struck her on the face with an open hand. Atta leapt to his mother’s defence and he, too, was sent flying.’ (2848). Moreover, the wife that cannot bear such harshness, but has to obey, ‘began a fit of hysterics which continued throughout that night and the following day, and which so provoked her husband that he threatened her with divorce’. (2848) This is the daily fate shown to women in Islam-ridden countries, as in Afghanistan under Taliban’s rule and nowadays Islamic rule too, Iran, Saudi Arabia…etc., to put aside Huma’s being disowned and being given ‘one week in which to pack her bags and go’. (2848) The answer to why this happens in the story as a stereotype of women’s status in those countries can be seen in the mentioned verses and many others from Qur’an.

Rushdie has ridiculed and satirised Islam in many ways, either by bringing these things I discussed or by giving some icons in the story. The word Sheikh means chief of a tribe or alike, and at the same time it is used for a high social and religious rank of a person. Sheikh Sin in ‘The Prophet’s Hair’ is not a man of Allah. This Sheikh is ‘The Thief of Thieves’ (2850) and a ‘professional burglar’. This irony simply mocks Islam and Islam’s symbols. As we see in the opening of the story that Atta is entering ‘the most wretched and disreputable part of the city’ (2843) and searching for a burglar to save them. What is also more satirical is that because of the disaster the ‘holy hair’ of Muhammad brings about to Hashim’s family, Huma seeks help from the thief of thieves who lives in an ‘ever darker and less public alleys’. (2844) Atta and Huma really want to get the relic out of their house seeing it the source of their misery. The thing considered as ‘holy’ is devastating and people are furious over it; the ‘crook’ has sought to be a rescuer. Another satiric tone is Atta’s speech. When he realizes that the cause of their disaster is the vial, he says to his ‘shock-numbed’ sister: ‘We are descending to gutter-level’. (2848) This implicitly means that Islam and Muhammad’s ‘holy hair’ disgraced and lowered them.

The relic will be enshrined again in its ‘appropriate’ place but after having destructed everything. When it came to Hashim’s house it brought the enormous catastrophe? the father, the son and the daughter all die and the mother is driven to madness and the Sheikh is shot dead. Sheikh Sin’s family seems to have got benefit from it, but it is ironically mentioned that when the four crippled sons have healed, they were ‘very properly furious, because the miracle had reduced their earning powers by 75 per cent, at the most conservative estimate; so they were ruined men’ (2852).

After The Satanic Verses and the fatwa against Rushdie, the significance of ‘The Prophet’s Hair’ emerged. I would like to pick out Fiona Richards’ point that after the fatwa in 1989, this story had been republished in a collection and then in 1994 in a compendium named East, West. She claims that ‘The Prophet’s Hair’ was a defiance of the Fatwa. She quotes Rushdie’s emphasis about that. I would like to quote it again from her article: ‘“The Prophet’s Hair” is the answer to the intimidation question. If I was being scared off writing about Islam it wouldn’t be in the collection, would it?’[3] This asserts that Rushdie undoubtedly criticizes Islam, and even mocks it in ‘The Prophet’s Hair’, since it is not sacred for him.

The storm ends, and the relic is eventually ‘authenticated’ by ‘the holiest men’ because it caused that entire miracle. Nonetheless, the question that remains is the sacredness of Islam. If we just imagine and suppose that the relic is stolen again and this time the police do not find another ‘Sheikh Sin’ to get it back, and rumours spread that it is a group that has taken it, what would then happen? It would happen what happened in 2002, an immense conflict among the Muslims and the Hindus over the speech of one of the MPs that the relic belongs to a holy Hindu man. The relic was not stolen but someone suspected its Islamic genuine origin and ‘questioned the authenticity of a holy Muslim relic’[4]. ‘The Prophet’s Hair’ wants to give a message that no religion is sacred. I would conclude by Rushdie’s sentence that ‘To respect the sacred is to be paralysed by it’.[5] This short story conducts readers to ‘iconoclasm’. One may claim that to let not the relic destroy Hashim’s family, or as an icon of the whole society, per say, one has to destroy the vial that enshrines the relic or ‘the holy hair’. Otherwise, one will be paralysed by the sacred images portrayed as taboos that cannot be broken. The story gives the perception that Islam is what essentially is and its values cannot be altered. It is pretty true that ‘The person who wants to modernize Islam is like that forgetful genius who wants to invent a machine in his/her garage, which can turn copper into gold!’[6]


Footnotes

[1] M. H. Abrams, The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 7th.ed, vol.2, p. 2843. Further quotations will be mentioned only by the number of the page.

[2] The Holy Qur’an, translated by Maulawi Sher Ali. Alnisa chapter, 4, verse 13, p.75. Further verses will be taken from the same version with mentioning the name and number of the chapter followed by the number of the verse and then the page.

[3] Fiona Richards, The Desecrated Shrine: Movable Icons and Literary Irreverence in Salman Rushdie’s ‘The Prophet’s Hair’, SOAS Literary Review (2), July 2000, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London

[4] BBC News, MP faces trial in relic row

[5] Salman Rushdie, ‘Is nothing Sacred?’ Imaginary Homelands. (London: Granta Books, 1991), p.416.

[6] Mansoor Hekmat, ‘Islam is part of the “Lumpenism” in Society’. P.360


Bibliography

1. Hekmat, Mansoor. “Islam is part of the ‘Lumpenism’ in Society”. Mansoor Hekmat: Selected Works. London: Mansoor Hekmat Foundation, 2002. 356-60.

2. Rushdie, Salman “The Prophet’s Hair”, The Norton Anthology of English Literature, ed. by M. H. Abraham and Stephen Greenblatt. 7th ed., vol.2. New York: Norton, 2000. 2842-52.

3. Rushdie, Slaman. “Is noting Sacred?” Imaginary Lands. Salman Rushdie. London: Granta Books, 1991. 415-429

4. The Holy Qur’an. Translated by The late Maulawi Sher ‘Ali. Pakistan, Rabwah: The Oriental and Religious Publishing Corporation Ltd., 1979.

5. SOAS Literary Review (2), July 2000, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

6. BBC News, MP faces trial in relic row.

[Editor's Note: The author of this essay, Jamal Muhsin, is currently studying for his Master's degree in English literature at the University of Oslo.]

Wednesday, April 05, 2006

Iraqi Kurdistan: Mariwan Halabjaee, the New York Times, and New Allegations - A Constitutional Perspective

The New York Times has published an article, "Sex and Islam Author Says He Fears for His Life, but Some Call Him a Publicity Hound," about Mariwan (sp. Marywan) Halabjaee (sp. Halabjay, Halabjayee, Halabjaye, Halabjayi). Halabjaee, who is often referred to as "the Salman Rushdie of Iraqi Kurdistan," is the author of Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam.

The New York Times article calls into question Halabjaee's allegation that the Kurdistan Islamic Group threatened his life. The article does so in a way that raises several important issues regarding Iraqi Kurdistan.

As quoted in the article, Muhammad Hakim Jabar, one of the leaders of the Kurdistan Islamic Group, "scoffs" at the allegation that the group threatened Halabjaee's life. "If he were to walk down the street right here we wouldn't even stare at him," said Jabar. "We don't care about him."

Asos Hardi, a secular journalist and founder of Kurdistan's most popular independent newspaper, Hawlati, said he did not think Halabjaee was in "serious" danger of being killed. Hardi also noted that "the Islamists made a big mistake. They made Mariwan famous and they made his book famous."

Thus, we are left with two possibilities. The first is that the Kurdistan Islamic Group did not threaten Halabjaee's life. That, obviously, would be very good news.

The other possibility is that the Kurdistan Islamic Group did threaten Halabjaee's life, but is now afraid to admit it publicly. That, less obviously, would also be good news. Or at least good news when compared to other Muslim countries.

It would mean that Iraqi Kurdistan is the one Muslim country where it is not acceptable to publicly issue a fatal fatwa because the author "defamed" Islam.

It would mean that Iraqi Kurdistan is the one Muslim country where a public call for the execution of a "blasphemer" would not draw frothing crowds of yowling supporters carrying signs prominently featuring the word "Death," but would instead result in calm and rational public condemnation, disapproval and disgust.

It might even mean that Iraqi Kurdistan is the one Muslim country where threatening to murder someone because he wrote a book critical of Islam would lead to adverse legal consequences. Legal consequences such as investigation, prosecution and incarceration.

Unfortunately, not all of the news is good news. At least not to anyone who recognizes that while the rule of law is necessary for a civilized society, it alone is insufficient. Anyone who recognizes the critical distinction between democracy, and the resulting possibility of the tyranny of the majority, and constitutionalism, the idea "that government can and should be legally limited in its powers, and that its authority depends on its observing these limitations."

All is not good news to anyone who insists on not only the rule of law, but also that such laws be just. Anyone who demands not only that the law be approved by the majority, but also that the law, even if approved by the majority, not contravene certain fundamental, inalienable human rights. The right to freedom of speech perhaps being paramount.

Unfortunately, it is uncontested that Halabjaee is facing criminal charges for "defamation" or "criticizing" religion or religious figures -- that is, for blasphemy.

It is uncontested that the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) Minister of Religious Issues, Dr. Mohammad Gaznayi, told protestors that according to the law of Iraqi Kurdistan the punishment for that crime "is severe."

It is uncontested that Gaznayi told these protestors that "We will give those who attack our prophets a sentence so that they can be a lesson for everyone."

That is bad news.

Still, such things, unfortunately, are relative. Such things, sometimes fortunately, sometimes unfortunately, change over time.

Some may look at this situation and say the glass is half-full. Others may say it is half-empty.

While important, whether the glass is now half-full or now half-empty is, in the long run, not the most important issue. The most important issue is this: Is the glass becoming more full, or is it becoming more empty over time?

Is Iraqi Kurdistan changing for the better, or for the worse?

It may be too early to answer the last question. It is not too late to affect the answer to that question.

[Editor's note: As a result of alleged physical, and uncontested legal, threats against Halabjaee, the book Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam has been published on the Internet.]

Tuesday, April 04, 2006

The Liberation of Iraq

Analysis and Solutions

By Lawk Salih
April 4, 2006
www.lawksalih.com

On April 8th, 2003 the U.S. and Coalition forces entered Iraq to in order to overthrow Saddam Hussein's tyrannical regime. The decision was made by the U.S. government after the terrorist attacks occurred in the United States that damaged the Pentagon and brought down the Twin Towers in New York City. Three thousand innocent lives were taken by extremist Muslims originating from the UAE and Saudi Arabia in corporation with the Al-Qaeda Network based in Afghanistan.

With the support of the American public, President Bush made the decision, along with the British Government, to destroy all terrorist training camps in Afghanistan and Iraq. The decision also freed the people of Iraq and Afghanistan. It helped them freely elect their own government, ministries, and to run their own affairs without interference from any brutal dictators such as Saddam in Iraq and the Taliban in Afghanistan.

This invasion caused a harsh reaction by terrorist organizations around the world, primarily the Al-Qaeda group in Afghanistan. It allowed them to recruit weak-minded individuals and they managed to brain wash and prepare them for suicidal attacks against Iraqis and U.S. forces. These merciless groups attack innocents without any hesitation and their tactics are despicable. They behead them and kill powerless children and women in order to promote a disgusting ideology within the region and to create hatred towards western democracy. Video tapes have shown their attacks on government institutions, educational facilities, and supermarkets that outraged millions of people around the world. Their attacks have led to the murder of tens of thousands of Iraqi civilians and innocent people.

We marked the third year of the invasion this year and it seems like the U.S. government has done its job removing Saddam Hussein but still has trouble securing a government body in Iraq that will defend itself and help fight terrorism. The U.S. government is currently training the Iraqi army and security forces to defend its citizens and help draw down the number of U.S. troop in Iraq. The media in the U.S. and throughout the world has criticized the way the U.S. is handling the war in Iraq. They have published numerous articles that have heavily criticized US actions. However, they fail to communicate the "good things" that are happening in Iraq. Nearly 2,000 educational institutions have been rehabilitated with USAID funding, unemployment has dropped considerably, and more hospitals are being built in the rural areas.

In order for the U.S. to decrease its death toll in Iraq will have to train the Iraqi forces as soon as possible to do the actual fighting against these filthy jihads individuals who are willing to take innocent live out and create chaos to create an anti-U.S. alliance within Iraq. The training of Iraqi forces is vital to the withdrawal of U.S. forces. They need to be well trained to take on the security responsibilities of Iraq as a whole and to secure its borders from foreign fighters. The U.S. needs to empower non-religious groups to promote a modern society in Iraq and to respect self-determination and basic human rights. By supporting a Shia-led government, this will help create another Iran in the region and it will be difficult for us to fight terrorism in the region. They promote a secular government based on religious laws (Sharia) to limit freedom of speech, media, and self determination. We need a government that will promote a free democratic Iraq with prosperity and equal rights for all including women and children. The new government will need to recognize women's role in the society and a government that will not deprive women from getting education and the right to choose their own destination. Iraqis need a government that is not based on a religious constitution. Rather, they need a constitution that will serve the country as a whole without any religious interference.

The Kurds have done a tremendous job promoting democracy, individual's rights and free media. They have been busy reconstructing the northern part of Iraq (Kurdistan) with new schools, hospitals and government institutions. The region is safer then most places in the middle-east; they're fighting terrorism along side of the United States and the Coalition forces to free all Iraq from extremist Muslims. They have given the right to women to run in the governing council. There are currently two ministries running by women from the region. It is quite an improvement for a region that was deprived and oppressed by the previous tyranny of Saddam Hussein.

Monday, April 03, 2006

Iraqi-Kurdistan: Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam published on the Internet

The Kurdistani - Photo of book cover - Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam, by Mariwan HalabjayeeAs first reported by the The Kurdistani, the book Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam by Mariwan (sp. Marywan) Halabjaee (sp. Halabjay, Halabjayee, Halabjaye, Halabjayi), "the Salman Rushdie of Iraqi-Kurdistan," has now been published on the Internet.

The book is about how Islam is allegedly used to oppress women. "I wanted to prove how oppressed women are in Islam and that they have no rights," said Halabjaee. "My book is based on Islamic sources such as the Holly Qur'an, Muslim and Bukhari books and many more." The book is in its third printing.

A dedicated website, Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam, has been created to facilitate Internet distribution of the book. The book can be downloaded in Adobe Acrobat PDF format, compressed zip format, compressed rar format (the format originally provided by The Kurdistani), and as jpeg graphic files for each individual page.


Book cover for Sex, Legislation and Women in the History of Islam, by Mariwan (sp. Marywan) Halabjaee (sp. Halabjayee, Halabjaye, Halabjayi)
The website Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam is founded on the belief that the best way to respond to those who try to suppress publication of an academic book is to increase publication, promotion and distribution of that book. The most efficient way to do that is on the Internet. It is also based on the belief that the only thing that should be accomplished by those who seek to suppress publication of the book Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam is to cause it to be published to the entire world.

The book was originally made available online by BoPeshawa.com, along with information about efforts to aid Halabjaee. In addition, BoPeshawa.com provides contact information for the representative of Halabjaee’s campaign in the United Kingdom, Shapol Said [shapoldarya@yahoo.co.uk].

Photo of Mariwan (sp. Marywan) Halabjaee (sp. Halabjay, Halabjayee, Halabjaye, Halabjayi)As previously reported, Halabjaee was forced to flee to Sweden after the Islamic League of Kurdistan issued a "conditional" fatwa to kill him if he did not repent and apologize for writing his book. The "conditional" nature of the fatal fatwa was uncertain. Halabjaee reported that "a couple of weeks ago in Halabja, the mullahs and scholars said if I go to them and apologize they will give me 80 lashes and then refer me to the fatwa committee to decide if I am to be beheaded. They might forgive me, they might not."

Halabjaee received telephone calls saying, "Now, in 10 years or 15 years, we will kill you." Another time, Halabjaee reported, "the Islamists said once from the radio, if they found out where I was, they would blow themselves up with me." The worse thing was realizing that his wife and children were in danger. "With that book I wanted to defend women but the first thing I did was hurt my wife." As a result, Halabjaye went into hiding with his pregnant wife and three children.

Halabjaee was forced to flee Iraqi-Kurdistan after the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) refused to offer him any protection or to arrest those who threatened his life. "The Kurdish authorities have not provided any protection from threats and fatwas," said Halabjaee, "any moment I am expecting a bullet or a hand grenade to be thrown into where I live."

In response to the Halabjaee affair, the KRG Minister of Religious Issues, Dr. Mohammad Gaznayi, told protestors that according to the law of Iraqi-Kurdistan, "defamation" or "criticizing" religion or religious figures is a crime and its punishment is severe. "We will give those who attack our prophets a sentence so that they can be a lesson for everyone," said Gaznayi. Halabjaee was in possession of a warrant for his arrest issued by the Suleimaniya police department when he fled Iraqi-Kurdistan.

The book Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam is available at the following Internet locations:

Website: Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam

Entire Book in Adobe Acrobat PDF Format

Entire Book in Compressed ZIP Format

Entire Book in Compressed RAR Format

Book in JPG Format: Page 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117

Archives in Adobe PDF Format:

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Archive in Compressed RAR Format

UPDATE 4/9/06: See the updated article: Iraqi Kurdistan: Mariwan Halabjaee, the New York Times, and New Allegations - A Constitutional Perspective.